A publication of AAEA

A publication of AAEA

References Guidelines "For More Information"

The “For More Information” section of your article is used to list any articles you cited in the text. You may also list any works you did not cite specifically but that might provide more information for an interested reader.

Do not place references in a text box.

Each reference should be in Times New Roman, 12 point font, flush left, ragged right.

In general, references should follow the American Journal of Agricultural Economics (AJAE) style, including parenthetical references (author, date) in the text as needed, with the following exceptions or reminders:

  • Do not use ampersands (&) in a list of authors. Instead, please use the word “and”.
  • Do not use abbreviations for departments (i.e., Agr. Econ. Dept. should be spelled out as Agricultural Economics Department) or agencies (i.e. USDA should appear as U.S. Department of Agriculture.)

For your reference, the key AJAE guidelines are listed below.

AJAE Reference Guide for use in Choices

List all references double-spaced at the end of your article, alphabetized by authors’ last names, at the end of the manuscript in a section titled “For More Information.”

When citing works in the text, use et al. only when a work has four or more authors. Cite all of the authors in the reference section.

For journal articles, include the issue number or month (see below) for journals that do not number pages consecutively throughout a volume (e.g., Journal of Economic Perspectives).

Please use the examples below to determine the correct format for references.

Book with 1 author:

Black, J.D. 1929. Agricultural Reform in the United States. New York: McGraw Hill Book Co.

Book with 2 authors:

Wold, H., and L. Jureen. 1989. Demand Analysis, 3rd. ed. New York: Macmillan Co.

Book with 3 authors:

Wold, H., J. Smith, and L. Jureen. Year. The Viability

Forthcoming book:

Masters, H.E. Forthcoming. Land Grant Colleges Today, vol. 1. New York: Macmillan Co.

Author and editor:

Timmer, C.P. 1975. The Impact of Price. George Tolley, ed. Chicago: Ballinger Press.

Editor as author:

Harriss, C.L., ed. 1975. The Good Earth of America. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Paper delivered at a meeting and not published:

Blakley, L. 1974. “Domestic Food Costs.” Paper presented at AAEA annual meeting, College Station TX, 4–8 August.

Article in a book:

Sjaastad, L. 1971. “Occupational Structure and Migration Patterns.” In E. O. Heady, ed. Labor Mobility and Population in Agriculture. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, pp. 8–27.

Article in a journal that numbers pages consecutively throughout the year (please include article page numbers):

Ezekiel, M. 1929. “A Statistical Examination of the Problem of Handling Annual Surpluses of Nonperishable Farm Products.” Journal of Farm Economics 11:193–226.

Article in process:

If publication year is known, use:

Swallow, S.K., and M.J. Mazzotta. 2004. “Assessing Public Priorities for Experiment Station Research: Contingent Value and Public Preferences for Agricultural Research.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 86: in publication process.

If publication year is not known, use:

Swallow, S.K., and M.J. Mazzotta. Forthcoming. “Assessing Public Priorities for Experiment Station Research: Contingent Value and Public Preferences for Agricultural Research.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics, in publication process.

Article in a journal that uses an issue number rather than a volume number or article in a journal that begins numbering at p. 1 in each issue:

Porter, M.E., and M. Sakakibara. 2004. "Competition in Japan." Journal of Economic Perspectives 18(1):27-50.

Calcott, P., and M. Walls. 2000. "Can Downstream Waste Disposal Policies Encourage Upstream 'Design for Environment'?" American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings 90(2):233-237.

Yohe, G., J. Neumann, and H. Ameden. 1995. “Assessing the Economic Cost of Greenhouse-Induced Sea Level Rise: Methods and Application in Support of a National Survey.” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 29(3, Part 2):S-78-S-97.

Article in a popular magazine.

Prufer, O. 1964. “The Hopewell Cult.” Scientific American, December, pp. 90–102.

Forthcoming magazine article:

Lambert, P. Forthcoming. “Parameters of Social Disintegration.” Political Science Quarterly, in press.

Newspaper article with known writer

Von Drehle, D. 2000, January 15 “Russians Unveil New Security Plans.” The Washington Post, pp. A1, A21.

Newspaper article without writer designation

The Washington Post, 2000, January 15 “Russians Unveil New Security Plans.” pp. A1, A21

If two or more books or articles are by the same author or authors, list them alphabetically by title, not chronologically. DO NOT use a 3-em dash if author name(s) appear exactly the same in the second instance. Spell out the complete author or authors in subsequent listings:

Goldberger, A.S. 1959. Impact Multiplier and Dynamic Properties of the Klein-Goldberger Model. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing.

Goldberger, A.S. 1964. Econometric Theory. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Horan, R.D., J.S. Shortle, and D.G. Abler. 1999. “Green Payments for Nonpoint Pollution Control.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 81:1210-1215.

Horan, R.D., J.S. Shortle, and D.G. Abler.  2004. “The Coordination and Design of Point-Nonpoint Trading Programs and Agri-Environmental Policies.” Agricultural and Resource Economics Review 33:61-78.

University departmental bulletin:

Bucholz, H.E., G.G. Judge, and V.I. West. 1962. “A Summary of Estimated Behavior Relations for Agricultural Products in the United States.” Department of Agricultural Economics AERR-57, University of Illinois, Campaign-Urbana. 

Conference proceedings: 

Lim, K. H., and Hu, W. 2013. “How Local Is Local? Consumer Preference for Steaks with Different Food Mile Implications.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Agricultural Economics Association, February 3–5, Orlando, Florida.

Working paper:

Fishbourne, N., and B. Geagh. 1974. “Food Policies and Social Supply.” Working paper, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of California, Davis.

Unpublished thesis:

Kuranchie, P.A. 1971. “Cost and Returns to Selected Crops in Ghana.” MS thesis, University of Ghana.

Wells, J.C. 1964. “An Appraisal of Agricultural Investments in the 1962-63 Nigerian Development Program.” PhD dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Unpublished material:

Moore, P. 1960. “Academic Development.” Unpublished, University of Notre Dame.

State Agricultural Experiment station bulletin:

Heady, E.O., D. McKee, and C.B. Haver. 1955. “Farm Size Adjustments in Iowa and Cost Economies in Crop Production for Farms of Different Sizes.” Iowa State University Agricultural Experimental Station Res. Bulletin No. 428, May.

Departmental bulletin:

Heady, E.O., D. McKee, and C.B. Haver. 1955. “Farm Size Adjustments.” Department of Agricultural Economics Bulletin No. 428, Iowa State University, May.

USDA publication with author named:

Brown, L.R. 1965. Increasing World Food Output: Problems and Prospects. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic, Statistics and Cooperatives Services, Foreign Agricultural Economics Report 25, April.

USDA publication without an author named:

U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1965. Changes in Agriculture in 26 Developing Nations, 1948–1963. Economic, Statistics and Cooperatives Services, Foreign Agricultural Economics Report 27, Washington, D.C., November.

Publication by another Departmental agency:

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 1966. 1964 United States Census of Agriculture, Preliminary Report. Washington, D.C., April.

Publication by an Executive agency:

U.S. Bureau of the Budget. 1963. The Budget of the United States Government for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1964. Washington, D.C.

Congressional publication:

U.S. Congress, House of Representatives, Task Force on Federal Flood Control. 1966. A Unified National Program for Managing Flood Losses. Washington, D.C.: House Document 465, 89th Cong., 2nd sess., 10 August.

U.S. Congress, Senate Commission on Commerce. Conversion to the Metric System: Hearings on S1278. Washington, D.C.: 88th Cong., 2nd sess., January 9, 1964, p. 58.

United Nations publication:

United Nations. 1964. Yearbook of National Accounts Statistics, 1963. New York.

United Nations, Food and Agriculture Organization. 1962. Agricultural Commodities, Projections for 1970. Rome.

Publications by foreign governments or their agencies:

Ghana, Republic of, Central Bureau of Statistics. 1962. Economic Survey, 1961. Accra: Government Printing Department.

Non-government reports:

Haynes, M. 2009. “Farm-to-School in Central Minnesota.” Minneapolis, MN: Region Five Development Commission, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities Applied Economics Department. Available online:

Choices In-text Website Citations

If necessary—for example, when writing about specific information from food bloggers—website addresses can be cited within the text of your article since Choices is an online publication. The address must immediately follow the site name. When the article is put online for Choices, it will be linked and no address will appear. However, the website must also be included in the For More Information section so that people printing a hard-copy of the article can also reference the site.

When listing websites, they may remain underlined and in the default color of blue. However, do not try to break the address or in any way format it after listing, for example:

Available online:

Links will be handled when the article is posted online.

Saveur ( published its list of 2013 award winners.

For More Information:
Saveur. (2014). 2013 Best Food Blog Award Winners. Available online: