CHOICES

CHOICES

A publication of AAEA

A publication of AAEA
Pollination Service Markets: Evolution and Outlook

Pollination Service Markets: Evolution and Outlook

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Theme Overview: Pollination Service Markets: Evolution and Outlook

Peyton Ferrier

This theme discusses the origins, operations, and institutions of pollination markets with two main results. First, farmers utilize well-developed markets for pollination services when necessary rather than leaving pollination to chance. Second, increased demand for pollination services from California almond orchards has reshaped the revenue structure of the beekeeping industry.

Honey Bee Mortality, Markets, and the Food Supply

Randal R. Rucker, Walter N. Thurman, and Michael Burgett

Since 2007, public concern has been voiced over honey bee health and Colony Collapse Disorder. In this article, we discuss the conclusions that can be drawn using the latest data on overwinter mortality and USDA counts of honey bee colonies, including the implications of changes in honey bee health status on the food supply.

Contracting for Pollination Services: Overview and Emerging Issues

Brittney K. Goodrich

California almond pollination contracts are becoming more formalized and commonly incorporate minimum standards and incentives for colony strength. On average, growers paid a 5.7% premium for colonies contracted above the industry standard colony strength requirement. Pollination agreements typically include clauses regarding pesticide use, late placement, and beekeeper access to colonies.

Are the Almond and Beekeeping Industries Gaining Independence?

Antoine Champetier, Hyunok Lee, and Daniel A. Sumner

Almond planting data indicate that pollination service demand from almond growers is likely to increase and induce a higher proportion of U.S. colonies to migrate to almonds. Adoption of varieties with lower pollination requirements might mitigate impacts of pollination fee increases gradually, with favorable net returns to adoption.

Honey, Forage and Almond-Pollinating Honey Bees

Antoine Champetier, Hyunok Lee, and Daniel A. Sumner

After almond pollination, many beekeepers struggle to find safe habitat and forage or places to make honey. Increasing demand for pollination services may induce beekeepers to: (i) adjust away from almond pollination toward marketable honey or (ii) exploit the healthy forage in almond orchards to build strong hives for honey-making.